# GATE 2023 XE Engineering Sciences- Food Technology Syllabus

### GA General Aptitude

#### Verbal Aptitude

1. Basic English grammar:  tenses, articles, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, verb-noun agreement, and other parts of speech
2. Basic vocabulary: words, idioms, and phrases in context
4. Narrative sequencing

#### Quantitative Aptitude GATE XE 2023

1. Data interpretation: data graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, and other graphs representing data), 2- and 3-dimensional plots, maps, and tables
2. Numerical computation and estimation: ratios, percentages, powers, exponents and logarithms, permutations and combinations, and series
3. Mensuration and geometry
4. Elementary statistics and probability

#### Analytical Aptitude

1. Logic: deduction and induction
2. Analogy
3. Numerical relations and reasoning

#### Spatial Aptitude Gate XE 2023

1. Transformation of shapes: translation, rotation, scaling, mirroring, assembling, and grouping
2. Paper folding, cutting, and patterns in 2 and 3 dimensions

### XE-A Mathematics

#### Section 1: Linear Algebra

##### Algebra of real matrices:
1. Determinant, inverse and rank of a matrix;
2. System of linear equations (conditions for unique solution, no solution and an infinite number of solutions);
3. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of matrices;
4. Properties of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of symmetric matrices, diagonalization of matrices;
5. Cayley-Hamilton Theorem.

#### Section 2: Calculus

##### Functions of single variable:
1. Limit, indeterminate forms and L’Hospital’s rule;
2. Continuity and differentiability;
3. Mean value theorems;
4. Maxima and minima;
5. Taylor’s theorem;
6. Fundamental theorem and mean value theorem of integral calculus;
7. Evaluation of definite and improper integrals;
8. Applications of definite integrals to evaluate areas and volumes (rotation of a curve about an axis).
##### Functions of two variables:
1. Limit, continuity and partial derivatives;
2. Directional derivative;
3. Total derivative;
4. Maxima, minima and saddle points;
5. Method of Lagrange multipliers;
6. Double integrals and their applications.
##### Sequences and series:
1. Convergence of sequences and series;
2. Tests of convergence of series with non-negative terms (ratio, root, and integral tests);
3. Power series; Taylor’s series;
4. Fourier Series of functions of period 2π.

#### Section 3: Vector Calculus

2. Line integrals and Green’s theorem.

#### Section 4: Complex variables

1. Complex numbers, Argand plane, and polar representation of complex numbers;
2. De Moivre’s theorem;
3. Analytic functions;
4. Cauchy-Riemann equations.

#### Section 5: Ordinary Differential Equations

1. First-order equations (linear and nonlinear);
2. Second-order linear differential equations with constant coefficients;
3. Cauchy-Euler equation;
4. Second-order linear differential equations with variable coefficients;
5. Wronskian;
6. Method of variation of parameters;
7. Eigenvalue problem for second-order equations with constant coefficients;
8. Power series solutions for ordinary points.

#### Section 6: Partial Differential Equations

1. Classification of second-order linear partial differential equations;
2. Method of separation of variables:
3. One dimensional heat equation and two-dimensional Laplace equation.

#### Section 7: Probability and Statistics

1. Axioms of probability;
2. Conditional probability;
3. Bayes’ Theorem;
4. Mean, variance, and standard deviation of random variables;
5. Binomial, Poisson and Normal distributions;
6. Correlation and linear regression.

#### Section 8: Numerical Methods

1. Solution of systems of linear equations using LU decomposition, Gauss elimination method; Lagrange and Newton’s interpolations;
2. Solution of polynomial and transcendental equations by Newton-Raphson method;
3. Numerical integration by trapezoidal rule and Simpson’s rule;
4. Numerical solutions of first-order differential equations by explicit Euler’s method.

### XE – E Thermodynamics

#### Section 1: Basic Concepts

1. Continuum and macroscopic approach;
2. thermodynamic systems (closed and open);
3. thermodynamic properties and equilibrium;
4. state of a system, state postulate for simple compressible substances, state diagrams, paths, and processes on state diagrams;
5. concepts of heat and work, different modes of work;
6. zeroth law of thermodynamics;
7. concept of temperature.

#### Section 2: First Law of Thermodynamics

1. Concept of energy and various forms of energy;
2. internal energy, enthalpy;
3. specific heats;
4. first law applied to elementary processes closed systems and control volumes, steady and unsteady flow analysis.

#### Section 3: Second Law of Thermodynamics

1. Limitations of the first law of thermodynamics, concepts of heat engines and heat pumps/refrigerators, Kelvin- Planck and Clausius statements and their equivalence;
2. reversible and irreversible processes;
3. Carnot cycle and Carnot principles/theorems;
4. thermodynamic temperature scale;
5. Clausius inequality and concept of entropy; microscopic interpretation of entropy, the principle of increase of entropy, T-s diagrams; second law analysis of control volume;
6. availability and irreversibility;
7. third law of thermodynamics.

#### Section 4: Properties of Pure Substances

1. Thermodynamic properties of pure substances in solid, liquid, and vapor phases;
2. P-V-T behavior of simple compressible substances, phase rule, thermodynamic property tables and charts, ideal and real gases, ideal gas equation of state, and van der Waals equation of state;
3. law of corresponding states, compressibility factor, and generalized compressibility chart.

#### Section 5: Thermodynamic Relations

1. T-ds relations, Helmholtz and Gibbs functions, Gibbs relations,
2. Maxwell relations, Joule-Thomson coefficient, coefficient of volume expansion,
3. adiabatic and isothermal compressibilities, Clapeyron and Clapeyron-Clausius equations.

#### Section 6: Thermodynamic Cycles

1. Carnot vapor cycle, ideal Rankine cycle, Rankine Reheat cycle,
2. air-standard Otto cycle, air-standard Diesel cycle, air-standard Brayton cycle,
3. vapor-compression refrigeration cycle.

#### Section 7: Ideal Gas Mixtures

1. Dalton’s and Amagat’s laws, properties of ideal gas mixtures, air-water vapor mixtures and simple thermodynamic processes involving them;
2. specific and relative humidities, dew point and wet bulb temperature, adiabatic saturation temperature, and psychrometric chart.

### XE – G Food Technology

#### Section 1: Food Chemistry and Nutrition

1. Carbohydrates: structure and functional properties of mono-, oligo-, & poly- saccharides including starch, cellulose, pectic substances and dietary fiber, gelatinization, and retrogradation of starch.
2. Proteins: classification and structure of proteins in food, biochemical changes in the post-mortem, and tenderization of muscles.
3. Lipids: Classification and structure of lipids, rancidity, polymerization, and polymorphism. Pigments: carotenoids, chlorophylls, anthocyanins, tannins, and myoglobin.
4. Food flavors: terpenes, esters, aldehydes, ketones, and quinines.
5. Enzymes: specificity, simple and inhibition kinetics, coenzymes, enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning.
6. Nutrition: balanced diet, essential amino acids, and essential fatty acids, protein efficiency ratio, water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins, the role of minerals in nutrition, co-factors, anti-nutrients, nutraceuticals, nutrient deficiency diseases. Chemical and biochemical changes: changes occur in foods during different processing.

#### Section 2: Food Microbiology

1. Characteristics of microorganisms: morphology of bacteria, yeast, mold and actinomycetes, spores and vegetative cells, gram-staining.
2. Microbial growth: growth and death kinetics, serial dilution technique.
3. Food spoilage: spoilage microorganisms in different food products including milk, fish, meat, egg, cereals, and their products.
4. Toxins from microbes: pathogens and non-pathogens including Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia, Bacillus, Clostridium, and Aspergillus genera.
5. Fermented foods and beverages: curd, yogurt, cheese, pickles, soya sauce, sauerkraut, idli, dosa, vinegar, alcoholic beverages, and sausage.

#### Section 3: Food Products Technology

1. Processing principles: thermal processing, chilling, freezing, dehydration, the addition of preservatives and food additives, irradiation, fermentation, hurdle technology, and intermediate moisture foods.
2. Food packaging and storage: packaging materials, aseptic packaging, controlled and modified atmosphere storage.
3. Cereal processing and products: milling of rice, wheat, and maize, parboiling of paddy, bread, biscuits, extruded products, and ready-to-eat breakfast cereals.
4. Oil processing: expelling, solvent extraction, refining, and hydrogenation.
5. Fruits and vegetables processing: extraction, clarification, concentration, and packaging of fruit juice, jam, jelly, marmalade, squash, candies, tomato sauce, ketchup, and puree, potato chips, and pickles.
6. Plantation crops processing and products: tea, coffee, cocoa, spice, extraction of essential oils and oleoresins from spices.
7. Milk and milk products processing: pasteurization and sterilization, cream, butter, ghee, ice- cream, cheese, and milk powder.
8. Processing of animal products: drying, canning, and freezing of fish and meat; production of egg powder.
9. Waste utilization: pectin from fruit wastes, uses of by-products from rice milling.
10. Food standards and quality maintenance: FPO, PFA, A-Mark, ISI, HACCP, food plant sanitation and cleaning in place (CIP).

Section 4: Food Engineering

1. Mass and energy balance;
2. Momentum transfer: Flow rate and pressure drop relationships for Newtonian fluids flowing through pipe, Reynolds number.
3. Heat transfer: heat transfer by conduction, convection, radiation, heat exchangers.
4. Mass transfer: molecular diffusion and Flick’s law, conduction and convective mass transfer,
5. permeability through single and multilayer films.
6. Mechanical operations: size reduction of solids, high-pressure homogenization, filtration, centrifugation, settling, sieving, mixing & agitation of liquid.
7. Thermal operations: thermal sterilization, evaporation of liquid foods, hot air drying of solids, spray and freeze-drying, freezing and crystallization.
8. Mass transfer operations: psychometric, humidification and dehumidification operations.
error: Content is protected !!